Bakhmul

De Bakhmhul is een autochtone (= aboriginal) Afghaanse windhond die behoort tot een oude groep van oosterse windhonden. Bakhmull heeft zich ontwikkeld in bergachtige gebieden in Midden-en Centraal-AziŽ, en het oude Penjab, noordelijke India. Hij is gebruikt voor de jacht op wilde geiten, wilde grote katten, wolven, vossen en hazen. Dit deed het alleen, of in paren, maar zelden of nooit met meerdere honden.
Sinds de jaren 80 is de kennel "Blue Dale el Bark" (Moskou) bezig om dit oude ras weer opnieuw te ontwikkelen en vermeerderen. U kunt contact opnemen met Natalia Gherasiova: 121352 Moscow, Slavyanski blv. 7-1-149, email: radobark@gmail.com

Om een goed beeld van de hond te krijgen, plaats ik hier de standaard zolas deze vaststaat bij de Russian Federation of Hunting Dogs' Owners (RFOS-RKF) (ook samengesteld en vertaald door Natalia Gherasiova.

Breed standard for "BAKHMULL" adopted 13.01.1997 by RFOS
(The Russian Federation of Hunting Dogs' Owners (RFOS-RKF)
Author and translator Natalia Gherasiova, president and executive of the national club "Bakhmull", the kennel and club of oriental sighthounds" Blue Dale el Bark" since 1992.

General appearance and temperament


Bakhmull is upstanding, having majestic carriage, well boned and well muscled but not massive (mass 25- 35 kg), speedy, manoeuvring, showing great jumping power, capable of great endurance, having good sight, both upper and lowers scent. Bakhmull is a good guard and yields to training if treated with care and respect. Graceful and powerful, well balanced in conformation and mind, of perfect symmetry, beautiful and noble, aggressive to beasts and generous to people, especially to children, intelligent and affectionate, even disposition, joyous, calm at home but alert reckless in field. Bitches are shy and feminine, their main mission is to reproduce offspring. Females' exterior is not so bright as that of males. Bakhmulls, especially dogs, carry themselves with dignity, have qualities of a leader and try to dominate over other dogs, demanding much respect for themselves. Bakhmulls serve people to their utmost.

Require a lot of field training and chasing a quarry. Though coat is long enough, it doesn't require much grooming. Paws are well protected from injures by feathering. Long silky velvet coat and stamina makes it possible to withstand severe weather. A MUST for the breed is: presence of natural (not trimmed) "saddle" covered with short, coarse, close set hair, well feathered ears and "breeches" around second thighs; short hair on the front parts of fore-and hindquarters and the muzzle; light fawn, ivory or white color of long hair except the "saddle" of a darker fawn color; tail in a full ring or half a ring, a unique combination of elegance and might.

Faults: any trace of coarseness, aggressiveness to people, cowardice to beasts, croup up and front low, too stocky or high on legs, extreme light, lean bone structure, insufficiently developed muscles, lean and robust constitution, not protective color- black, brindle, dark red color.

Color


Protective, always light color, fawn of various shades : lighter or darker, golden( but never red or dark red), ivory or white with silvery or golden shade, pure white, rarely light grey; long silky velvet angora coat coupled with a fawn , rarely grey "saddle" of smooth, short, coarse close hair. White short smooth close hair on the muzzle and on the front parts of fore and hindquarters . Even if the hound is of fawn or dark fawn color, the color of the muzzle, round eyes and lips, on the neck underneath and on the brisket, round the pasterns and the metatartus (from the hind paws up to the hocks) , under the sternum and the belly, sometimes the end of the tail are of white color independent of light fawn or dark fawn color is the hound.(There is a special word in Russian for lighter color on the inside parts of the body and legs, the muzzle of an animal, underneath the lower jaw). Light color with bakhmulls is a MUST, because it is protective ( khaki) color that matches sandstone and limestone of the mountain ranges and semi cold deserts in the primary motherland of bakhmulls.

Faults: black, black and white, black and tanned, red , dark red, brindle (these colors except black and tanned are typical of taigans - another breed).

Coat


Long, silky-velvet, angora like, straight hair coupled with darker "saddle" covered with smooth short coarse close hair of protective fawn, ivory or white color with a darker fawn "saddle" which gives an impression of a fawn dog (yellowish, golden) as a whole. Short white close set hair on the front parts of fore and hindquarters and the muzzle . Head is surmounted with long silky velvet hair, coming back and down from the scull along the ears. Almost the whole body except the upper part of neck, where the "saddle" begins, the "belt" on the upper part of the tail, the front parts of four legs and muzzle covered with long white velvet coat: shoulders, especially elbows, forelegs behind, chest and brisket, ribs, thighs and especially second thighs around ("bridges"). Tail has longer, rather scarce, coarser hair. Toes of fore and hindlegs as well as pads are covered with soft long hair. Disposition of coat shows natural adaptation to severe (heat or cold) weather with great fluctuations of temperature. Short hair on front parts of four legs (metatarsal and metacarpal bones) manifest aerodynamic abilities for fast racing and high speed (parts of body covered with short hair to diminish the resistance of wind). Profound protection of paws from rocky tough ground are provided with long dense hair of paws. Protective fawn color makes the hounds less visible for animals and is another evidence of its ancient origin. Such remarkable coat, its disposition , color and texture (which varies and under close view consists of six kinds: ears, body, front parts of legs and muzzle, underneath tail, pads, "saddle").

Faults: mooth short coat instead of long silky coat on the body, ears, elbows, round the second thighs and underneath the tail. Absence of natural "saddle" which starts from the neck, continues on the back and ends on the upper part of the tail as a belt. . No short coat on the front parts of legs.

Head


  

The head of bakhmull is a distinguished part of the body which says about its ancient origin . It is well defined, aristocratic, elegant, neither narrow nor broad, with a slight stop, prominent occipital bone, powerful jaws, always scissors bite (never level bite), a full complete of big white teeth. The length of the muzzle from the tip of the nose to the middle of the eyes is equal to the length from the eyes to the occiput. Head is surmounted by a topknot falling back and by sides. The head must be held proudly.

Muzzle (Foreface)


Foreface straight or a bit arched, full, showing strength of jaws, especially the lower one.

  

Faults: any trace of plainness or coarseness, too broad or too narrow scull, unequal length of muzzle and scull, "duck" like foreface, weak jaws (especially the lower one), too long muzzle, level bite.

Eyes

  

"Gazelle like", large, brown or dark brown, slanting upwards, which show oriental origin, of almond shape. Eye rims (eyelids) always outlined black, emphasizing oriental origin. Arched protruded eyebrows give an impression of triangular eyes. The expression of the eyes is considerate, tranquil, intelligent. Intelligence and courtesy, which can be seen by eyes, are innate abilities of a bakhmull and testify to the ancient origin of the breed.

Faults:
not slanting, small, close set, round, bulged, yellowish (must always be brown), not of almond or triangle shape, not outlined black eye rims.

Nose


  

Large and movable when scenting, black as well as lips and eye rims. In case with snow white bakhmulls liver color is permissible but not desirable.

Faults:
pink or liver color, not big nostrils, small.

Ears

  

Long, set on the level with the outer corners of the eyes or higher (not lower as bakhmull is a hunting hound), may raise a little when the hound is on the alert; covered with long silky hair, might be trimmed black at the ends especially with puppies. The leather of ear may almost reach the corner of the lips.

Faults:
too long or too short, not covered with long silky hair, set very low.

Mouth (Teeth)


  

Teeth pearl white, large, full formula of 42 teeth, prominent and threatening, that is typical of all oriental breeds of (sight)hounds. (Note: availability of all 42 large teeth is quite a problem for "civilized" modern dogs and is a must for aboriginal breeds of hunting dogs). "Scissors" bite is correct. "Level" bite is not permissible.

Faults:
overshot, undershot, inherited lack of even one tooth (but not as a result of trauma), level bite, small teeth.

Neck


  

Long, strong, muscular, elegantly arched or straight, running naturally to high powerful withers. "Saddle" of short hair and darker color begins with the neck of a mature hound.

Faults:
short, loaded, "sheep"-neck, "swan"-neck.

Chest


  

Broad, deep, ribs almost reaching the elbows, narrowing down, ribs rather barrel like. Girth of the chest for males: 77-83 cm and for females: 74-78 cm.

Faults:
narrow or too open wide the chest.

Withers



Powerful and prominent, well boned, wide apart at a distance of 7 cm. ( 2.3 in.)
HEIGHT: dogs 68- 73 cm. (27- 28.5 in.), bitches 65- 70 cm .(25.5- 27.5 in.) Bakhmull is a fine upstanding hound, the height in withers is 3- 4 cm higher than in croup ( which is not typical of taigan or taza). WEIGHT : dogs 29- 36 kg. , bitches 23- 30 kg. Height for dogs 75 cm. and for bitches 72 cm. permissible but not desirable. The distance between the top of withers and the pit in the backbone ( a diaphragmatic vertebra) must be 16- 22 cm. Both overmuscled and undermuscled hound is not a good chaser for long distances.

Faults:
not prominent, weakly boned, set close, not falling down at an angle to the pit of the backbone. The distance between the top of the withers and the pit is less than 15 cm.

Back


  

Level, long and broad, well muscled, strong with a little pit, made by a diaphragmatic vertebra. Bakhmull may be square or oblong (index of extension is 100-103, even 105) but never rectangular. The top line of bakhmull differs substantially from that of the Russian psovaya borzaya, whose back is arched.

Faults:
shortened in the length of body, too high on legs, absence of the pit, not well muscled.

Loin


  

Straight or a bit arched , broad and long, well muscled, springy , showing great strength, playing a very important role when racing.

Faults:
roached, wheel, narrow, weak.

Croup


  

Powerful and wide, not long and note very slope. The distance between prominent hip bones is not less than 8 cm. (8 - 10.5 cm. = 3.2 - 4 in.)

Faults:
very slope, not powerful, too long, narrow.

Belly


  

Tucked up not so much curved as in case with Russian psovaya borzaya.

Faults:
flabby, too curved.

Skin


Supple and elastic.

Faults:
coarse, rough,not elastic.

Forequaters


Withers (scapula) sloping, powerful, well muscled but not loaded. Scapula together with sternum (shoulder) create a 110 degree angle. Forelegs are straight and upright, set in parallel, wide front. Elbows are prominent and strictly look back, not inside or outside. Front pasterns (metacarpus) are strong and rather long, springy and a bit oblique to the ground.

Faults:
straight shoulder (over 120 degrees) is a great fault, pigeon-toed, toeing in or out.

Hindquaters



Parallel, of good length, powerful, well muscled, well bent, showing good angulation, stifles and hocks well developed. Hip bones rather prominent and wide apart. First thigh (upper) and second thigh (lower) are equal in length and well muscled. Hind pasterns (metatarsal bones) are shorter than thighs, but rather long, vertically set, springy, hocks apart.

Faults:
short upper thigh, lack of good angulation of joints, hocks close set - so called "cow hocks".

Tail


  

Long, not reaching the hock 4- 5 cm , thick at the basement, tapering to the end, curved in one full ring or half a ring , feathered well with long coarser not very abundant straight hair on the underside. The ring at the end (like that of taigan) is not desirable because when raised it makes two rings. It is set rather high at the basement on the croup or in the middle but not low. When standing on the alert, the tail is always high in a ring over the croup, when at rest it is downcast in a ring. In action during galloping the tail is held on the level or higher the line of the back, curving in different directions and plays the role of a helm. Bitches are shy by nature and can often be seen with the tail between the legs at shows, which must not be considered a fault unlike dogs.

Faults:
straight (not a ring), "setter" like tail, lack of feathering of straight coarser hair underneath the tail, bent right or left of the tail, short tail, very thin tail, tail downcast without a ring, a small ring at the end of the ring like taigan tail impossible to unbent, because when raised over croup it makes two rings instead of one - so called "overwinded" tail.

Feet (Paws)


Fore feet strong and large both in length and breadth, toes arched, pads thick and strong. Hind feet oval, more narrow than the fore feet. Feet and pads are covered with long soft thick hair, both upper and lower sides, protecting the hound from hazards of firm soil. Claws are big.

Faults:
open wide toes, weak paws.

Movements



Gait is easy and springy. Searching for a prey bakhmull walks or jogtrots. After seeing a beast it starts galloping very fast with a whole body, moving with head and tail high, covering long distances, overcoming obstacles on the way, steeplechasing, changing the direction of movement all of a sudden with a great skill, jumping over hindrances up to 2.5 metres high. When galloping Bakhmull makes a ball of the body, providing a great power of push shove, bringing hind legs forward and up while the forelegs are between the hind legs far back. Bakhmull's race reminds that of a cheetah. Unlike other breeds of sighthounds (except taigan) bakhmulls are able to chase a quarry in woods without a risk to hurt themselves badly. Owing to great ability for swinging at a high speed, bakhmull can hunt a hare solo and can manage without assistance of another hound. They usually hunt in pairs.




Behaviour


  

Combination of two polar qualities: might and elegance in appearance and behaviour are typical of bakhmulls. A great sense of dignity, love for freedom and independency, nobility implanted in a genetic memory and developed within thousands of years during the evolution of nature, willingness to teach its kids and protect them until they grow up and start protecting aging weaker ones against attacks of other dogs, love for smaller dogs of other breeds, but dominating large breeds, especially those reminding wolves; love and desire to protect human babies, affection and kindness to people, striving for guarding people, their dwellings and children; inborn intelligence and cleanliness, zeal for an animal and tolerance to people, harmony in constitution and harmony in mind, stable strong psyche and a great range of feelings. Bakhmulls are joyful by nature and can enjoy life, racing, swimming, hunting and just long walk infine weather. They are grateful to owners for giving them such fun and manifest it this or that way. Bakhmulls are communicative but some can be aloof and distrustful to strangers. Bakhmull never attacks people, unless there is a serious reason, such as a threat to the master, baby or so. Within their own family bakhmulls strictly observe subordination and yield to escape conflicts. They observe subordination and mutual respect. No matter younger or older a bakhmull will never step over another sleeping bakhmull. He will stop and ask for giving him the way to pass a narrow passage by means of telepathy. It may take quite long unless the first one awakes and gives the way. Respect and subordination for them is an instinct. Bakhmull is very polite to people and never asks for food or walks. He is tolerant and importunate. He does not impose on people with his own desires. Some people might envy Bakhmull's courtesy, courtesy and high inborn culture of behaviour. Bakhmull is a good , courageous warrior and can serve people to the utmost. He approaches a prey with an open mouth, producing threatening sounds, warning that he is very close and ready for the last decisive battle. Bakhmull can be missing the master very deeply if feels that he was betrayed and left, but he is able to forgive the master as well.

  

But there are "closed" pages in Bakhmull's temper and behaviour which seem to be unreadable. Bakhmull takes a decision by himself and when he considers it necessary.